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Creation of high-quality longitudinal data for aging minority populations

To address the absence of methodological guidance on overcoming the barrier of inclusive aging research, activities in this thematic area will examine recruitment methods outside of probability sampling. Because how granular minority groups are integrated in society may differ from one group to the next, we acknowledge that there may not be a single method that will address this theme fully. Rather, the focus will be examining various methods and their effectiveness across granular groups. The goal is to identify methods that are feasible and provide robust representation properties for individual granular groups in the longitudinal study setting and comparability with non-minority data available in existing longitudinal aging studies.


Hupp, A., Schroeder, H., Leissou, E., and West, B.T. (2023).

Increasing diversity in research participation: A good practice guide for engaging with underrepresented groups.

(2023, February 14).

Retrieved February 20, 2023, from


In order to increase participation in research from minority and other underrepresented groups, it is important to understand why participation may be lower in specific groups. Some reasons for decreased participation may include a lack of trust towards the research community, as well as physical and economic barriers that can further impede meaningful participation. To work towards reducing these barriers, it is key to cultivate relationships with potential participants to better understand their needs and increase trust.

Davis, R., and Bekker, P. (2022).

Recruitment of older adults with dementia for research: An integrative review.

Research in Gerontological Nursing,15(5), 255–264.


Fourteen studies were identified that examined recruitment strategies for persons with cognitive impairment over a 10-year time period. Most studies were retrospective and descriptive. Studies revealed three facilitators and three barriers for recruitment. Facilitators included community partnerships and trust, incentives, and use of multiple recruitment methods. Barriers included non-targeted recruitment methods, gatekeepers, and mistrust. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to determine specific strategies that yield effective recruitment.

Hupp, A., Schroeder, H., Leissou, E., and West, B.T. (2023).

The Impact of QR Codes on Recruitment and Data Quality for a Web Screener.

Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, May 2023.


Researchers from the Health and Retirement Study have found that roughly 2/3 of individuals invited to complete a household screening questionnaire online are choosing to access the screening questionnaire via a QR code provided in the invitation letter. Of note, 71% of responding Hispanics chose to use the QR code, and 17% of screeners completed via the QR code were from Hispanics. This study therefore presents initial evidence of the benefits of using QR codes during recruitment of older Hispanic populations.

Lachance, L., Coombe, C.M., Brush, B.L., Lee, S.D., Jensen, M., Taffe, B., Bhardwaj, P., Muhammad, M., Wilson-Powers, E., Rowe, Z., Caldwell, C.H., and Israel, B.A. (2022).

Understanding the Benefit-Cost Relationship in Long-standing Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) Partnerships: Findings from the Measurement Approaches to Partnership Success (MAPS) Study. 

The Journal of applied behavioral science58(3), 513–536.


Community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires a long-standing relationship between academic and community partners in order to establish mutually beneficial relationships. Since the needs within a CBPR partnership shift throughout the course of the partnership, it is important to consider the changing needs in a long-standing CBPR partnership where community partners more heavily value investments that yield mutual benefits on behalf of both the academic and community partners.

Lee, L., Bulgar-Medina, J., Neishi, K., Houghton, A., and Sidi, M. (2022).

“Strategies for Increasing Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Representation in Survey Research.” 

Survey Practice 15 (1).


Despite the rapidly growing population, Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) people are often underrepresented in national survey estimates, especially if they are non-English-speakers. Key strategies for improving AANHPI survey participation include: involving trusted community leaders throughout the survey process to increase trust throughout the community in those conducting surveys, creating culturally-appropriate survey related messaging, and developing appropriate translations of survey items.

Farooqi, A., Jutlla, K., Raghavan, R. et al. (2022).

“Developing a toolkit for increasing the participation of black, Asian and minority ethnic communities in health and social care research.” 

BMC Medical Research Methodology 22, 17 (2022).


Racial minorities are consistently underrepresented in surveys and research across all fields, due to poor recruitment strategies, a lack of cultural competence amongst researchers, and lack of meaningful engagement with relevant community members and stakeholders, among other factors. It is important to involve culturally competent researchers, allow participants to provide feedback to researchers, effectively recruit participants in a way where they are able to understand the benefits of the research, and ensure that the research is relevant to the targeted population.

Caldwell, W.B., Reyes, A.G., Rowe, Z., Weinert, J., and Israel, B.A. (2015).

Community Partner Perspectives on Benefits, Challenges, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons Learned from Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships in Detroit.

Progress in community health partnerships : research, education, and action9(2), 299–311.


Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has proven to be extremely useful in conducting research that is not only informed by the communities in which it involves, but also integrates community members and partners into each part of the research process. Using this approach, this article highlights the important perspectives of three community partners working with the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, and the unique assessment of the benefits and challenges of utilizing a CBPR approach from the perspective of a long-standing community partner.